Using a Valve Actuator for Ball Valves

A control valve actuator is used not only for controlling valves but also for precisely regulating their position. By providing compressed air to the piston actuator or diaphragm positioner, an adjustable valve is then adjusted in response to the control signal. In order to ensure the valve does adjust according to the requirements of the control system, the valve positioner is connected to the valve/actuator stem and monitors its position throughout the control process. It is possible to control the valve very precisely based on the feedback of the valve stem position.

Automatic control systems have the following components: a fluid to be controlled, a sensor to determine the process variable, an actuator to modulate the valve, a controller to modulate the actuator, and a control valve to regulate flow.

As the flow of fluids in pipes is controlled by the interplay of these elements, any control system can, in principle, regulate all fluids flowing through pipes using valve automation such as a valve actuator. According to the needs of the process, several different systems can be used depending on how the system is implemented.

Through the use of valve automation, a valve actuator regulates the rate of flow through valves. Consequently, it needs to be designed so that it can withstand all the challenges that may arise while working in the field, and even the most difficult or unusual ones. All valves may not be appropriate for every single conceivable fluid flow condition, and this cannot be stated explicitly. It is imperative that the valves are installed to handle the conditions of operation specified. Over the years, many types of control valves have been developed for use in various applications. There are a number of these types of systems which cover a range of processes in high numbers whilst others have been developed for special requirements.

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It is a general rule that ball valves are used for processes involving hydrocarbon oil and gas, as well as aggressive services where chemicals are present. Ball valves using actuators are usually used to control the flow of steam, rather than to throttle (control flow) using automation. As a result, use of the spherical ball can determine whether the flow is blocked by the inside diameter of the valve. When a hole is drilled into the ball by means of a lever, the hole in the ball will rotate 90°, and the flow will be allowed when the hole through the ball is drilled along the axis of the pipe.

With regard to high-pressure classes of reservoirs, injection lines leading to seawater injections are mixed in with the hydrocarbon services that provide enhanced oil recovery. A ball valve is by far the best valve to use in this type of application since it allows the valve to be switched on/off. In process pumping applications, there are other kinds of valves such as butterfly valves and wedge gate valves that are less robust than ball valves.

A big advantage of ball valves over through conduit gate (TCG) valves is that ball valves are more compact vertically than TCG valves. TCG valves fill up a lot of space vertically. However, their actuation occurs through a vertical mounted actuator that occupies a lot of space horizontally.

Fast opening applications are not suitable for ball valves since the valves open slowly. Generally, it is possible to reduce the opening time of a fail-open actuated valve through installation of a quick exhaust valve on the control panel to release the instrument air from the pneumatic actuator in the fail mode quickly. However, ball-valve seats and disks are in contact during the opening and closing, which can jeopardize the fast opening characteristic.

A smaller stem torque and a larger actuator are also necessary to move the relatively large and heavy ball. Moreover, moving the relatively large and heavy ball may take longer. Ball-valve manufacturers were consulted about the use of soft-seat balls for this application, but the manufacturers felt that the rapid opening of a soft seat ball valve in 2 seconds could lead to the soft seat being damaged due to the repeated contact with the ball.

 

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The Most Authoritative Motor Winding Machine Guide

Introduction

In recent times, there has been a rapid development in the utilization of motor winding machines. As a result of research and development conducted over a long period, these state-of-the-art winding machines were deployed successfully. This is mainly due to the efficiency of energy conversion. In general, these motor winding machines are defined as the wires that are enclosed within coils, typically around with a coated adaptable iron magnetic core, in order to shape magnetic poles while being strengthened by the current [1]. Electric machines come in two basic magnet field pole configurations, named salient pole and non-salient pole. The diagram below illustrates the motor’s windings.

1

                                                                 motor winding

The two-mode pole configuration machine, including salient pole and non-salient pole configuration machines, is utilized for different tasks. The magnetic pole can be generated in the salient pole configuration by exploiting a winding wound approximately underneath the pole face. While in a non-salient pole configuration, the winding can be dispersed within the pole face slots. Additionally, a shaded pole motor involves a winding that is wrapped around the portion of the pole that maintains the magnetic field phase. Also, certain types of motors utilize conductors which is made up of thicker metal, such as sheets of metal, rather than bars made of copper or aluminum. In general, these are programmed with electromagnetic induction.

Types of Winding Machines

There are two types of motor winding which include the following:

  • Stator Winding
  • Rotor Winding

Stator Winding

The stator winding is composed of two identical but distinct three-phase windings wound to the same pole count. Both stators are catered with a uniform frequency [2]. Additionally, these three-phase windings are linked in star or delta configurations which is based on the initiating method.

The star or delta stator enables the motor (which is similar to a squirrel cage) to be frequently on track. Therefore, due to the mutual coupling of the two stator windings, slight unbalances in the supplied voltages cause circulating current. Hence, the stator of the motor can be tied to the delta. Additionally, by including resistance, the slip-ring three-phase induction motor’s stator windings can be linked in star or delta form. Moreover, due to the low resistance to harmonic currents, there is a high level of circulating current when a non-sinusoidal voltage supply is employed, which increases losses and induces the use of wider semiconductor device ratings.

2

                                 Stator Winding (Source: SMT Winding Equipment)

Rotor Winding

In the context of stator winding, rotor winding has a similar shape to the squirrel cage (See figure), which involves conductors that are encased in slots surrounding the laminating iron core. Additionally, the rotor winding is permanently bolted in on itself due to the use of short end rings at the ends of the winding [3]. However, with this design, there is no way to link the rotor to anything outside of the machine. This is one of the relatively simplest and most affordable motors, as it does not require bushes, commutators, or even slip rings, and it has an extended maintenance-free operational life.

3

                                               Rotor Winding (Source: cs.uaf.edu)

The wounding of the armature is referred to as armature winding. The armature winding can be used to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy for generators and electrical energy to mechanical energy for motors. Armature windings are categorized into two types based on the motor winding machines.

  • Lap winding
  • Wave winding

Lap Winding

The only type of armature winding is lap winding. The conductor connection can be made in the same manner as the lanes and poles are linked. Additionally, the last part of each armature coil is connected to the commutator. Inside the winding, the number of brushes is equal to the parallel lines [4]. These are evenly split into positive and negative polarity windings. Furthermore, lap windings are mostly used in high-current and low-power machinery. Also, these windings are grouped into three types, including simplex, duplex, and triplex windings.

Wave Winding

Wave winding is comprised of parallel lanes between two brushed surfaces, such as positive and negative. With some distance, the end part of the primary armature coil can be linked with the beginning part of the next armature coil commutator section [5]. In addition, two parallel lanes in a machine pole can connect the conductors in this sort of winding. The parallel ports can be equal in number to the brushes, which is useful for high-voltage and low current devices.

Advantages of Winding Machines

The adoption of motor winding machine has accelerated the growth and development of the coil processing business. The automated winding machine’s streamlined process results in an increase in efficiency, product quality, and non-conforming products. There are many advantages to employing motor winding machines.

  • In general, the winding is difficult and inefficient for manual work. However, the use of motor winding machines can improve efficiency, reduce labor costs, and also help the industry or business develop faster.
  • Honest Mechatronic Equipment [6] The winding speed, number of times, and duration of the automatic winding machine can all be precisely tuned via the PLC controller.
  • Additionally, the cable is compact and clean, with no diameter deformation.
  • According to various control schemes, it can be wound around a range of different windings in the same machine. Individual labor can accomplish the tasks of many people, which greatly improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of the industry.
  • These coil winding devices are more adaptable and diverse than manual competitors. Additionally, they are simple to install and use, with a low failure rate.
  • After basic training, the workshop personnel can operate, which is more humane.

Businesses in the textile and paper sectors frequently operate with large spools of material on a daily basis. However, how does such a large volume of material end up on a spool in the first place? The answer is a winding machine, which can rapidly wind fabric, paper, string, cord, wire, tape, rope, thread, and wire onto an industrial-size spindle as needed. Given the numerous applications for winding machines, different industries are working on the production of motor winding equipment. Some of them are listed below:

  • Shenzhen Honest Mechatronic Equipment
  • Menzel Elektromotoren
  • York Saw and Knife
  • Tuboly Astronic
  • Acme Mechatronics Inc.
  • Gorman Machine

Conclusion

The advancement of winding machines has shifted the gear towards automation, intelligence, consumer-friendly, and diversification. In addition, the motor winding capabilities have enhanced work productivity and the coil industry’s development. As the industry develops, the demands for winding machines are increasing, and there is also a need to develop more efficient, energy-efficient, and adaptable equipment.

References

[1] Takeuchi, Y., & Hiroshi, O. Development of New Type Wire Winding Machines” Inner Wire Winding Machine” and” Work Rotation Type Wire Winding Machine (Vol. 5, No. 5, p. 17). SANYO DENKI Technical Report 1998.

[2] Ishigami, T., Kitamura, M., & Sanada, K. (2008). Stator-Core Structure and Winding Technology for EPS Motors. IEEJ Transactions on Industry Applications128(12), 1411-1417.

[3] Liu, X., & Zhu, Z. Q. (2014). Stator/rotor pole combinations and winding configurations of variable flux reluctance machines. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications50(6), 3675-3684.

[4] Ishigami, T., Tanaka, Y., & Homma, H. (2014). Development of Motor Stator with Rectangular‐Wire Lap Winding and an Automatic Process for Its Production. Electrical Engineering in Japan187(4), 51-59.

[5] Zhu, L., Jiang, S. Z., Jiang, J. Z., Zhu, Z. Q., & Chan, C. C. (2010). A new simplex wave winding permanent-magnet brushless DC machine. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics47(1), 252-259.

[6] Shenzhen Honest Mechatronic Equipment. https://en.cnhonest.com.

 

An Introduction of CNC Horizontal Lathe

CNC machinery plays a crucial part in the manufacturing world, and I won’t be lying if I say the manufacturing industry revolves around CNC machinery.

Over the years, CNC or Computer Numerical Control machines have taken the market single-handedly because they have reduced the manual workload tremendously.

So, let’s begin with what are lathe machines?

Somewhere around 1300 AD, a two-person lathe machine already existed which was created by the Egyptians. Two major primary task got completed with it,

1. Turning off the woodworking piece manually by a rope.

2. Cutting wood in shape by the use of a sharp tool.

As civilization dawned upon us, the machine went through extensive changes. Due to the growth in technology the lathe machine also went through modifications in its traditional system.

The production of rotary motion is the most notable highlight of today’s lathe machines.

They are controlled by a computer with a menu- type interface, they are designed to use carbide tooling/processes, and it’s modern versions.

This is all about what is a lathe machine, so now let’s dig into what is it used for? And where are they used?

They are multi-skilled machines and which are resourceful for a wide range of industrial operations like Acrylic Spinning, Metal Spinning, Metalworking, Woodturning, Thermal Spraying, Pottery and a lot other.

The reason why lathe machines are so extensively used is that they are easy to set-up and its operations are simple.

Automotive, electronic, sporting, manufacturing and firearm are a few industries where they are put to use.

Here are some significant examples of the same-

1. Bowls

2. Cue Sticks

3. Dining Table and Chair Legs

4. Musical Instruments

5. Baseball Bats

6. Cam-shafts

7. Crank-shafts

Even though it’s easy to operate it should be used strictly by professionals.

Now, there are two types of CNC Lathe machine-

Horizontal Lathe and Vertical Lathe

So, here we will extensively talk about CNC horizontal lathe, and its uses.

So, what’s a CNC horizontal lathe?

Wikipedia defines it as “A lathe tool rotates a workpiece about an axis of rotation which performs a variety of operations like cutting, sanding, deformation, drilling, facing and turning with the help of tools that are applied to the workpiece for the creation of an object with its symmetry about that axis.

Well, you must be wondering what parts are used in Horizontal Lathes?

Lathe might or might not have legs which help it to support itself while placed on the floor and levitate the lathe bed to the necessary height needed while working.

It might be small to fit on a workbench or table which is why it doesn’t need to stand on its own.

Almost all the lathes have a bed, that’s a horizontal beam which makes it sure that chips or filling of stones falls off smoothly.

There’s a lot of diversity available in horizontal lathes.

Some of the notable ones are –

  • Ornamental turning lathes
  • Woodworking lathes
  • Glass-working lathes
  • Duplicating lathes
  • Metalworking Lathes
  • Transcription, or recording, lathes

Woodworking lathes are the oldest in the game and are also addressed as turning lathes.

Evolution of the machines has been done in a very promising way.

Metal lathes are an excellent example of horizontal lathes they come in various shapes and size depending on what operations they perform. The drilling machines are a notable tool to which the horizontal lathes are combined.

Technology is getting smarter day by day. Therefore, CNC horizontal lathes are also getting smarter and growing fast, making work considerably easy.

Manufacturer and industrialist are contented to see the production time cutting down due to horizontal lathes.

One person is all that you need to set up and monitor the lathe. The operator is solely responsible for specific tasks for a given period of time.

Lately, CNC horizontal lathes have become more technologically advanced, which didn’t hamper the design.

Horizontal lathe machines or CNC machines, in general, are completely closed, for safety and health purposes.

Most of the horizontal lathes are automatic which requires little to no human involvement. The modern technology programming and automation has resulted in very few errors which increased the production percentage by 25%.

Horizontal lathes have advanced technology and don’t need a regular movement of its parts, or its location. Improvements like these have brought down the delay it used to take in the production.