In recent times, there has been a rapid development in the utilization of motor winding machines. As a result of research and development conducted over a long period, these state-of-the-art winding machines were deployed successfully. This is mainly due to the efficiency of energy conversion. In general, these motor winding machines are defined as the wires that are enclosed within coils, typically around with a coated adaptable iron magnetic core, in order to shape magnetic poles while being strengthened by the current . Electric machines come in two basic magnet field pole configurations, named salient pole and non-salient pole. The diagram below illustrates the motor’s windings.
The two-mode pole configuration machine, including salient pole and non-salient pole configuration machines, is utilized for different tasks. The magnetic pole can be generated in the salient pole configuration by exploiting a winding wound approximately underneath the pole face. While in a non-salient pole configuration, the winding can be dispersed within the pole face slots. Additionally, a shaded pole motor involves a winding that is wrapped around the portion of the pole that maintains the magnetic field phase. Also, certain types of motors utilize conductors which is made up of thicker metal, such as sheets of metal, rather than bars made of copper or aluminum. In general, these are programmed with electromagnetic induction.
Types of Winding Machines
There are two types of motor winding which include the following:
- Stator Winding
- Rotor Winding
The stator winding is composed of two identical but distinct three-phase windings wound to the same pole count. Both stators are catered with a uniform frequency . Additionally, these three-phase windings are linked in star or delta configurations which is based on the initiating method.
The star or delta stator enables the motor (which is similar to a squirrel cage) to be frequently on track. Therefore, due to the mutual coupling of the two stator windings, slight unbalances in the supplied voltages cause circulating current. Hence, the stator of the motor can be tied to the delta. Additionally, by including resistance, the slip-ring three-phase induction motor’s stator windings can be linked in star or delta form. Moreover, due to the low resistance to harmonic currents, there is a high level of circulating current when a non-sinusoidal voltage supply is employed, which increases losses and induces the use of wider semiconductor device ratings.
Stator Winding (Source: SMT Winding Equipment)
In the context of stator winding, rotor winding has a similar shape to the squirrel cage (See figure), which involves conductors that are encased in slots surrounding the laminating iron core. Additionally, the rotor winding is permanently bolted in on itself due to the use of short end rings at the ends of the winding . However, with this design, there is no way to link the rotor to anything outside of the machine. This is one of the relatively simplest and most affordable motors, as it does not require bushes, commutators, or even slip rings, and it has an extended maintenance-free operational life.
Rotor Winding (Source: cs.uaf.edu)
The wounding of the armature is referred to as armature winding. The armature winding can be used to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy for generators and electrical energy to mechanical energy for motors. Armature windings are categorized into two types based on the motor winding machines.
The only type of armature winding is lap winding. The conductor connection can be made in the same manner as the lanes and poles are linked. Additionally, the last part of each armature coil is connected to the commutator. Inside the winding, the number of brushes is equal to the parallel lines . These are evenly split into positive and negative polarity windings. Furthermore, lap windings are mostly used in high-current and low-power machinery. Also, these windings are grouped into three types, including simplex, duplex, and triplex windings.
Wave winding is comprised of parallel lanes between two brushed surfaces, such as positive and negative. With some distance, the end part of the primary armature coil can be linked with the beginning part of the next armature coil commutator section . In addition, two parallel lanes in a machine pole can connect the conductors in this sort of winding. The parallel ports can be equal in number to the brushes, which is useful for high-voltage and low current devices.
Advantages of Winding Machines
The adoption of motor winding machine has accelerated the growth and development of the coil processing business. The automated winding machine’s streamlined process results in an increase in efficiency, product quality, and non-conforming products. There are many advantages to employing motor winding machines.
- In general, the winding is difficult and inefficient for manual work. However, the use of motor winding machines can improve efficiency, reduce labor costs, and also help the industry or business develop faster.
- Honest Mechatronic Equipment  The winding speed, number of times, and duration of the automatic winding machine can all be precisely tuned via the PLC controller.
- Additionally, the cable is compact and clean, with no diameter deformation.
- According to various control schemes, it can be wound around a range of different windings in the same machine. Individual labor can accomplish the tasks of many people, which greatly improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of the industry.
- These coil winding devices are more adaptable and diverse than manual competitors. Additionally, they are simple to install and use, with a low failure rate.
- After basic training, the workshop personnel can operate, which is more humane.
Businesses in the textile and paper sectors frequently operate with large spools of material on a daily basis. However, how does such a large volume of material end up on a spool in the first place? The answer is a winding machine, which can rapidly wind fabric, paper, string, cord, wire, tape, rope, thread, and wire onto an industrial-size spindle as needed. Given the numerous applications for winding machines, different industries are working on the production of motor winding equipment. Some of them are listed below:
- Shenzhen Honest Mechatronic Equipment
- Menzel Elektromotoren
- York Saw and Knife
- Tuboly Astronic
- Acme Mechatronics Inc.
- Gorman Machine
The advancement of winding machines has shifted the gear towards automation, intelligence, consumer-friendly, and diversification. In addition, the motor winding capabilities have enhanced work productivity and the coil industry’s development. As the industry develops, the demands for winding machines are increasing, and there is also a need to develop more efficient, energy-efficient, and adaptable equipment.
 Takeuchi, Y., & Hiroshi, O. Development of New Type Wire Winding Machines” Inner Wire Winding Machine” and” Work Rotation Type Wire Winding Machine (Vol. 5, No. 5, p. 17). SANYO DENKI Technical Report 1998.
 Ishigami, T., Kitamura, M., & Sanada, K. (2008). Stator-Core Structure and Winding Technology for EPS Motors. IEEJ Transactions on Industry Applications, 128(12), 1411-1417.
 Liu, X., & Zhu, Z. Q. (2014). Stator/rotor pole combinations and winding configurations of variable flux reluctance machines. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 50(6), 3675-3684.
 Ishigami, T., Tanaka, Y., & Homma, H. (2014). Development of Motor Stator with Rectangular‐Wire Lap Winding and an Automatic Process for Its Production. Electrical Engineering in Japan, 187(4), 51-59.
 Zhu, L., Jiang, S. Z., Jiang, J. Z., Zhu, Z. Q., & Chan, C. C. (2010). A new simplex wave winding permanent-magnet brushless DC machine. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 47(1), 252-259.
 Shenzhen Honest Mechatronic Equipment. https://en.cnhonest.com.